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Graphic Organizers

By: Terri Sigueza (2005)

Graphic organizers are a great tool to use when teaching English language learners (ELLs). Visual illustrations allow ELLs to better understand the material while learning important vocabulary.

Graphic organizers are most useful to ELLs when presented in small group activities. During the activities ELLs benefit from opportunities to work cooperatively — students are able to discuss and share their thoughts as they begin to contribute to the group effort. When ELLs use graphic organizers, they show achievement benefits across a variety of content areas, in all grade levels.

KWL chart

When teachers begin to use graphic organizers they need to follow some simple steps to make sure ELLs gain knowledge from such a simple yet reliable tool (Merkley & Jefferies, 2001). For example as a teacher begins to present a new topic, such as the solar system, an organizer can assist introducing the new idea (see graph 1).

Teachers should also begin to verbalize the relationship between the ideas, and the information that will be taught. Students or adults can write/draw the information provided by other students using a KWL chart (click for a blank one). Graphic organizers should be tailored to reinforce the relationships between concepts, reminding students that this is just a quick preview of the material that will be taught next.

KWL chart

Secondly, teachers need to provide the opportunity for students to participate in discussions. ELLs need to have numerous pauses to process language in order to participate. For instance, classroom activities can be tailored to let students create graphs such as a concept definition map (see graph 2). Students can create a list of familiar terms to these maps.

Once students had the opportunity to share their thoughts and understand the topic that it is to follow, teachers can start to connect new material to their prior knowledge. Lessons need to guide ELLs to activate prior knowledge as they recollect earlier taught content to be able to retain new material (Merkley & Jefferies, 2001). In other words, graphic organizers provide a visual summary as they describe information – introducing ELLs to new technical vocabulary as they reinforce decoding skills of key words for an upcoming lesson.

Graphic organizers facilitate ELLs' comprehension through visual illustrations of key terms, vocabulary, ideas, and the relationship among them. Improving student's reading comprehension can be challenging, but such progress is necessary when focusing on students who are learning English (Kim, Vaughn, Wanzek, & Wei, 2004).

Hot links

  • Education Oasis: Graphic Organizers for Vocabulary Development

    Links to vocabulary development graphic organizers.

  • Online Resources: Graphic Organizers

    This website from Lee's Summit District in Missouri links to many websites of graphic organizers. Other resources available on the site include supports for grammar, note taking, handwriting, and different styles of writing.

  • Bilingual Graphic Organizers

    Many graphic organizers in both Spanish and English from the Pomperaug Regional School District 15 in Connecticut.

  • TeacherVision: Language Arts Graphic Organizers

    These graphic organizers can be used to prepare for a five-paragraph essay, organize sentences in a paragraph, map concepts and events, compare topics with a Venn Diagram, organize notes for a presentation, create a double-entry journal, and much more.

  • TeacherVision: Graphic Organizers

    This page has over 50 different types of graphic organizers that will provide you with an ample amount of choices in several subject areas.

  • Everything ESL: Graphic Organizers

    This site contains plenty of ready to use graphic organizers. It also provides several links that allow you to personalize your organizers, so you can better meet the needs of your classroom.

  • Education Place: Graphic Organizers

    Education Place is Houghton Mifflin Harcourt's website for teachers. Resources offered include graphic organizers in English and Spanish, such as story maps, word webs, and KWL charts.

References

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Kim, A., Vaughn, S., Wanzek, J., & Wei, S. (2004). Graphic organizers and their reading comprehension of students with LD: A synthesis of research. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37 (2), 105-118.

Merkley, D. M., Jefferies, D. (2001). Guidelines for implementing a graphic organizer. The Reading Teacher, 54 (4), 350-357.

Endnotes

Endnotes

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Terri Sigueza expressed that ELLs are not necessarily struggling learners; they are learning a new language, and this is an enormous job on its own. As an advocate for ELL students her primary goal is to assure they are taught at their grade level using graphic organizers to meet their second language needs. Terri believes that graphic organizers hold they key to providing an opportunity for students to have access to content material with visual supports to fully reach their learning potential. Graphic organizers are easily accessible and adequate for all grade levels as they make learning meaningful, to all students.

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