The purpose of assessment for program placement is to identify those English language learners (ELLs) who need special instructional services such as sheltered English, ESL, or bilingual education. According to federal and state laws, students who cannot function in a regular all-English program due to lack of English skills must receive language instruction that helps them learn English so that they can succeed socially and academically in a general education class.
The identification of ELLs' language and academic needs is very important, because it becomes the basis for the development of a proper program of instruction. When ELLs' needs are not identified, their program may lack the instructional components necessary for their success in language proficiency and academic achievement. A proper assessment of your ELLs' needs will identify their:
- Home language preferences
- Educational background
- English proficiency level
- Academic content knowledge in English
Student home language survey
State and district mandates require ELLs to complete a student home language survey in English or their primary language as soon as they arrive in school. This survey is usually given in the front office when ELLs and their parents first arrive. The survey has questions to identify the ELL's home and preferred language. For the most part, home language surveys include versions of the following questions:
- Was English your first language?
- Can you speak another language? If yes, what language?
- What language do you speak most often with your friends?
- What language do you speak most often with your family?
Here are two sample home language surveys:
Home Language Questionnaires - New York State (in multiple languages)
Identifying educational background
In addition to knowing what language an ELL speaks at home, you will need to find out about his or her education, literacy skills, and need to learn English. Questions like the following are useful:
- How many years were you in school in your native country? In the United States?
- What grade were you in at the last school you attended?
- What is the name of the school you attended?
- Can you read in Spanish (your native language)? How well?
- Can you write in Spanish (your native language)? How well?
- How much help do you need to learn English?
- Where do you need to the most help? Speaking? Listening? Reading? Writing?
Identifying levels of English proficiency
It is also important to find out what your ELL's oral communication and literacy levels are. First, you need to determine the student's ability to both speak and understand oral English. Can she or he carry on a social conversation and/or discuss academic content? If the student can communicate orally, can he or she read and write in English at grade level?
Again, be sure to take into account the differences between social English and academic English. Students who can understand and respond orally in English in a face-to-face conversation may not be proficient in academic written English or literate enough to be placed in a grade-level English classroom. It is one thing to have a conversation in English with classmates. But it is another thing to read in academic English and understand textbook presentations of content material in science, math, social studies, and language arts.
Here are three commonly-used oral English language proficiency tests:
- Language Assessment Scales (LAS)
- IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test
- Basic Inventory of Natural Language (BINL)
To learn more about these three tests, click here.
For ways to assess fluency in reading, click here.
Identifying academic content knowledge
Once you have assessed the student's level of language proficiency, it is time to assess his or her knowledge of content areas in English and/or Spanish. Knowing your ELL's level of content area knowledge is another important part of determining the best placement for this student.
Here are some questions you may want to ask the ELL (or parents or guardians) about his or her academic knowledge:
- What subjects did you study in your previous school(s)? In what language(s) did you study?
(¿Qué materias estudiaste antes de venir a esta escuela? ¿En qué idiomas estudiabas?)
- Which books did you use in your other schools? In what language(s) were the books written?
(¿Qué libros de texto usaste en tus estudios? ¿En qué idiomas estaban escritos?)
- Did you study in a bilingual program? If yes, which subjects did you study in Spanish and which did you study in English?
(¿Estudiaste en un programa bilingüe? Si es así, ¿qué cursos estudiabas en español y cuáles en inglés?)
With all of this information in hand, your next step is making recommendations for placing ELLs in the best program of instruction.
Adapted from: Eastern Stream Center on Resources and Training (ESCORT). (2003). Help! They don't speak English. Starter kit. Oneonta, NY: State University College.
And from: Ovando, C. J., Collier, V. P., & Combs, M. C. (2003). Bilingual and ESL classrooms. Teaching in multicultural contexts (3rd ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill.
Sample survey questions adapted from: Hamayan, E.V., Kwiat, J.A., & Perlman, R. (1985). The identification and assessment of language minority students: A handbook for educators. Arlington Heights, IL: Illinois Resource Center.