Colorin Colorado: Helping children read... and succeed!
A bilingual site for families and educators of English language learners
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FAQs

Teaching + Instruction

Frequent questions

  • Question 1: How can I help a bilingual student who understands instructions and responds to multiple choice questions in two languages, but cannot produce his own answers?
  • Question 2: My daughter primarily speaks English, but understands Spanish, and is going to a bilingual kindergarten in the fall. She is very interested in learning to read. Should I teach her first in English or Spanish?
  • Question 3: What should be the main goal for teaching ELLs in the content areas?
  • Question 4: What are some fun ways to teach sight words to K-2 ELLs?
  • Question 5: Where can I find resources to teach high school ELLs in both English and Spanish literacy? My students are native Spanish speakers who read below a 4th grade level in Spanish.
  • Question 6: How can you explain to ELLs who are just starting to read why the capital "I" looks the same as a lower case "L"? Even on a keyboard they sometimes type the "I" as a lower case "L".
  • Question 7: I have a variety of levels in my ESL class. How do I differentiate instruction?
  • Question 8: What is "scaffolding" and how does it help ELLs?
  • Question 9: How do you build background knowledge?
  • Question 10: How do I implement thematic instruction?
  • Question 11: How can I encourage effective collaboration between the ELL staff and other professional and paraprofessional staff members?
  • Question 12: What does an effective language acquisition program look like?
  • Question 13: What are some things I can do to make the new ELLs in my class feel comfortable?
  • Question 14: Where can I find curriculum resources to teach ELLs in a mainstream classroom?
  • Question 15: Many of the ELLs in my class are able to decode English text, but continue to struggle with reading comprehension. How can I help them develop comprehension skills?
  • Question 16: What resources are available for teachers of ELLs that are 2, 3, 4, and 5 years old? We have quite a variety of languages in our school.
  • Question 17: One part of my lesson planning is to develop lessons with a multicultural perspective. Are you aware of a rubric or questionnaire that evaluates texts based on multicultural qualities?
  • Question 18: Where can I find teaching methodologies for ESL? I am in my second year of teaching and haven't had a methods class in four years.
  • Question 19: Does it help if my ELLs know how to read in Spanish?
  • Question 20: I'm looking for resources for ELL students who are not Spanish speakers. Where can I find help translating enrollment forms, developing an ELL parent guide, and developing standards-based curriculum for these students?

Expert answers

Question:

How can I help a bilingual student who understands instructions and responds to multiple choice questions in two languages, but cannot produce his own answers?

Answer:

It sounds like this student has a problem with expressive language; he is receiving and processing information correctly, he has trouble communicating what he knows. This could be a sign of a learning disability, or it could just be that he is sorting out the two languages in his environment. Lots of children who are raised bilingual have a slight delay in speaking, but they catch up to peers quickly, and are at an advantage because of their bilingualism!

Here is information on Children and Bilingualism from Reading Rockets.

Here is a collection of articles on Speech, Hearing and Language so you can read about normal speech development and warning signs of a bigger problem.

Finally, here is information about speech and language disorders.

If the problem persists and you suspect a processing problem, have this child evaluated by a speech language pathologist. Check the LD OnLine Yellow Pages for local listings.

Question:

My daughter primarily speaks English, but understands Spanish, and is going to a bilingual kindergarten in the fall. She is very interested in learning to read. Should I teach her first in English or Spanish?

Answer:

It is fantastic that you are starting early in raising your child in a bilingual environment! It will be such an advantage for her later on. The process of learning to read begins with the understanding that words are made up of sounds (phonological awareness) and that sounds are represented by letters (the early understandings of phonics). Once a child understands these ideas, she can continue on to areas like sounding out letter patterns and building fluent reading skills.

If your child is more comfortable speaking in English, you may want to start by reading in English. As she becomes more comfortable speaking Spanish, she will be able to translate the principles of reading to this language. The most important thing is to continue speaking to her in both languages, and to nurture her phonemic awareness, which will give her the foundation to learn to read in any language!

Check out the Reading Rockets section on early literacy (particularly Children and Bilingualism).

Question:

What should be the main goal for teaching ELLs in the content areas?

Answer:

It is difficult to isolate one primary goal for all content area instruction. However, in terms of literacy, the main target in the content area classroom should be reading comprehension. For English language learners, this usually means focusing on building vocabulary and background knowledge.

One of the most effective comprehension strategies you can use is to make sure you always have "before, during, and after" activities for any reading assignment students are given.

Activities that take place before reading might include:

  • introducing unknown vocabulary
  • previewing the text
  • making predictions about what the text will be about
  • activating students' prior knowledge about the topic

Activities during reading should be designed to check that students understand what they are reading. This might include:

  • having students stop from time to time to evaluate how their initial predictions about the text have turned out.

After reading, having students write summaries or complete graphic organizers such as timelines can help them make sense of what they have read.

A great resource for activities such as these is a book called Literature-Based Reading Activities, by Ruth and Hallie Yopp. It has a wealth of "before, during, and after" activities that, despite the book's title, are excellent for the content area classroom.

Question:

What are some fun ways to teach sight words to K-2 ELLs?

Answer:

Word banks are a great way to teach sight words, especially for ELLs who are also working on building English vocabulary, and there are lots of ways to use word banks that are really fun for kids.

A word bank is a child's individual collection of known words, written on small cards and kept together in a bag or envelope so that the child can read them and play with them regularly. To collect word bank words, choose 6-10 words from each book a child reads and print them neatly on small cards. The words can represent the specific phonics features the child is studying, or they can be high frequency words, such as "what" or "then." The word cards for each book can be kept in a pocket that has been glued to the inside cover of the book so that the same cards can be used again and again with different children.

After a child has read the book at least two or three times, take out the word cards and see which ones the child can read automatically, that is, without having to spend time decoding. For each word that is read automatically, make a new word card, and add it to the child's personal word bank. As new books are read, repeat the process, adding new words to the word bank.

The word bank then becomes a source for familiar words that can be used in a variety of ways:

  • Play Concentration — make a duplicate set of cards. Take turns turning cards up two at a time to find matches.
  • Play Bingo — make cards with selected words from the word bank in the boxes. Call out words, and as each is read, have the child cover it with a token. Then switch places, and have the child call out the words as you cover them.
  • Play Pick-Up — lay out 6-10 words from the word bank. Have the child pick up the words you name or describe. For example, "Pick up the words that rhyme with 'bat.'" or "Pick up the words that start like 'top.'"
  • Do Word Sorts — find words in the child's word bank that have something in common, either related to meaning or to word features. Take out two or three groups of such words, and have the child sort them. For example, have the child sort words that refer to animals as compared to words that refer to plants, or words that start like "which" as compared to words that start like "that."
Question:

Where can I find resources to teach high school ELLs in both English and Spanish literacy? My students are native Spanish speakers who read below a 4th grade level in Spanish.

Answer:

For many years, a variety of American publishing companies have offered what are called "high interest/low readability" texts in English. These are books that are written on a first to third grade reading level, but treat themes and topics that are of interest to students of middle school or high school age.

Currently, some publishers are offering this type of text in Spanish, as well. As a result of the increased emphasis throughout the U.S. on standardized content area testing, many of these texts are on nonfiction topics that would be of interest even to adult audiences. These include books on such topics as the sciences, health issues, and U.S. history and government.

  • Rourke Publishing offers various texts on U.S. history written on a fourth grade level in Spanish.
  • AGS Publishing has also recently introduced a U.S. government textbook in Spanish written on a fourth grade level.
  • Continental Book Company has a wide variety of books in Spanish, as well as bilingual English/Spanish books, including a large selection of dual language biographies written on a third grade level.

You should also take a look at the Lectorum website, which is Scholastic's Spanish site. Although many of the books are clearly for young children, you can also find "high/low" titles that would appeal to your students.

Publishers of materials for high school level Spanish as a second language classes might also be a good source. Glencoe, for example, has a "Journeys to Adventure" series and a "Señor Pepino" series that might work well with your students.

Also, be sure to check out the Educators Page on the Colorín Colorado website. You will find lots of outstanding resources there. Also, be sure to check out the Web Resources, where you will find links to many other excellent sites.

Question:

How can you explain to ELLs who are just starting to read why the capital "I" looks the same as a lower case "L"? Even on a keyboard they sometimes type the "I" as a lower case "L".

Answer:

This can be confusing for any beginning reader, and English language learners may have particular difficulty since the sounds that these letters make in English may also be very unfamiliar to them. Nevertheless, I think that this situation provides an excellent opportunity for your students to work on both letter recognition and sound-letter correspondence. For example, you might create an area on the classroom wall for collecting words that begin with "i" and words that begin with "l."

For each letter, make a card that has the letter written in upper and lower case, along with a picture of a familiar object whose name begins with that letter. Use these cards as headers for two columns on the wall. Students can then become detectives, keeping an eye out for "i" and "l" words as they read.

As each word is encountered, write it clearly on a large card and then have one or more students add an illustration. The card should then be placed on the wall under the appropriate header.

As new words are added, have students read through both lists orally. The illustrations will provide a scaffold for those who have difficulty with the words. The class can also discuss how the word is written in the source text, giving an opinion on whether they think the "i" or "l" is written correctly, using the cards on the word wall as a reference. I think your students will enjoy becoming "letter experts!"

Question:

I have a variety of levels in my ESL class. How do I differentiate instruction?

Answer:

Differentiated instruction refers to the teaching approach in which learners have multiple options for learning. This approach requires a great deal of flexibility when designing the curriculum and presenting information to students. Creating alternative modes of learning represents a challenge for teachers. The three main characteristics of differentiated instruction are: a favorable learning environment, a good plan of instruction, and ongoing assessment of student performance.

Let's start by focusing on the learning environment. The first step is examining the teacher's teaching attitudes. Implementing differentiated teaching means that teachers need to be convinced that ALL students are able to succeed. This attitude will affect the way students feel about their own potential to succeed.

The second step to creating a conducive environment for learning is creating a learning community in the classroom; it is important to make it clear to students that collaboration will be emphasized. To stimulate collaboration among students, it is effective to use flexible grouping. Flexible grouping involves allowing learners to work with a variety of peers based on the nature of the task, interests, needs, readiness, and self-selection. When adopting differentiated instruction, it is counterproductive to use stagnant group work, regardless of the criteria used to form the groups.

Good planning is the second important component of differentiated instruction. Planning instruction in a mixed-ability group means that one single plan will not be able to address the diverse needs of the students. It is common that teachers will need to select content, a teaching approach, and methods of assessment, for different groups of students within the same classroom.

The fundamental thing is to make it clear for students what the major concepts or principles are that they will be able to gain from the lesson. Once they understand what the lesson's "main idea" is, the teacher will then use that as the anchor for the unit or lesson the teacher plans to differentiate. From the anchor, the teacher will be able to diversify the paths through which students will process the information, and eventually they will all end up at the same point as they understand the major concept.

Creating learning centers in the classroom is one way to differentiate instruction for students. Centers would reflect the needs, interests, abilities, and readiness of students in terms of their language command (i.e., beginning, intermediate, and advanced), as well as linguistic abilities in reading, writing, oral, and content area. Lots of information on designing a good plan to differentiate instruction can be found at: Understanding by Design.

Assessment is the third major component of differentiated instruction. Assessment simply means collecting information about the learners. The information does not necessarily need to be graded or evaluated. It can be collected through activities learners engage in during instruction. Pair-work activities, writing samples, reading activities, role plays, etc. can all serve as a way for teachers to examine student progress. Observation of student performance on these various activities should be recorded through rubrics. Practical ideas for the assessment of ESL students can be found at: Kidsource. You can also watch a webcast on the topic.

Question:

What is "scaffolding" and how does it help ELLs?

Answer:

Scaffolding is a method in which the teacher supports a student to work just beyond the level he could achieve on his own. Psychologist Lev Vygotsky called this area the "zone of proximal development." As the student becomes more competent, the support is gradually removed until the student is able to perform the task without assistance.

The benefits of using scaffolding are numerous. Scaffolds help students build on prior knowledge and internalize new information. The goal of the educator when using the scaffolding teaching strategy is for the student to become an independent and self-regulating learner and problem solver.

In addition to facilitating learning, the scaffolds:

  • Motivate the child's interest related to the task.
  • Simplify the task to make it more manageable and achievable for a child.
  • Help the child focus on achieving the goal.
  • Clearly indicate differences between the child's work and the standard or desired solution.
  • Reduce frustration and risk.
  • Model and clearly define the expectations of the activity to be performed.

For a discussion of scaffolding research and strategies, see the Scaffolding as a Teaching Strategy document from Condor's Scaffolding Website.

For a variety of instructional activities using scaffolding strategies, visit EDTech Projects.

Question:

How do you build background knowledge?

Answer:

Students learn more effectively when they have familiarity with the content they are about to learn. When teachers link what students already know (prior knowledge) with the new concepts to be introduced, they stimulate student interest, motivation, and curiosity, and give learners a sense of purpose for learning.

To build learners' background knowledge, it is important that teachers activate students' prior knowledge as a first step. Prior knowledge can be assessed through a variety of advance organizers. Advance organizers help teachers clarify what the "big ideas" are, assess what students already know, and develop links between previous and incoming material.

Advanced organizers come in many different forms. You can find a variety of advanced organizers at CAST.

Once teachers have assessed what students know about a particular concept or idea, they can then use a variety of instructional strategies to introduce the material and address the diversity of learning styles and experiences students may have.

In terms of curriculum design, thematic and interdisciplinary instruction is an effective approach to build background knowledge and help learners make connections between the various content areas. This content connection strengthens the learner's ability to comprehend concepts in more depth. A sample of thematic instruction is available at NCREL.

Those interested in learning more about the topic can refer to Robert Marzano' text that focuses specifically on building students' background knowledge.

Question:

How do I implement thematic instruction?

Answer:

Thematic instruction is the development of instructional units based on a central theme (e.g., pyramids, quilts, etc.). All areas of the curricula are connected to the chosen theme. When using this approach to instruction, it is important to help learners see the "big picture" or examine the big ideas embedded in the curriculum.

To implement thematic instruction, it is important to choose a flexible enough theme to address the standards of various content areas. It is also critical for the teacher(s) to demonstrate clear connections among disciplines so that students acquire an integrated knowledge base.

When using thematic units with English language learners, it is extremely important that the four major language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) be integrated into each unit. That is, students must be engaged in each of the language skills at some point in the unit when focusing on the various content areas. Another important component is the inclusion of technology as a way to enhance the learner's experience.

More on thematic instruction and samples of classroom units can be found at:

Question:

How can I encourage effective collaboration between the ELL staff and other professional and paraprofessional staff members?

Answer:

Because of increased diversity in schools today, teachers can no longer act as independent entities but must collaborate across disciplines to reach all of the students in their classes.

The key to effective collaboration is open communication among partners, flexibility, and resourcefulness. Long lasting, effective partnerships also suggest that the entire school focus on a shared vision. That is, educators need to provide others in the school setting with information about academic goals, effective instructional methods, behavior management, standardized testing, and any issues affecting the teaching and learning of ELLs.

A strong initiative would include:

  • bringing together all teachers, school personnel, and administrators for a couple of hours once a month to discuss effective practices for working with ELL students,
  • allowing time for teachers to sit in each others' classes and observe ELL students in different learning settings
  • offering a series of professional development initiatives that are aligned to academic standards, curriculum, and assessment and that include all partners to discuss issues related to second language development and the acculturation process
  • emphasizing high expectations for all students
  • creating opportunities for native English speakers and ELLs to work together in structured classroom activities and to interact socially outside of the classroom
  • developing an interdisciplinary curriculum to allow for team teaching
  • sponsoring curricular and extracurricular activities that involve ELL students' parents and the non-English speaking community

The sites below provide more information on how to develop and maintain effective collaboration in schools and how to provide educators with the kind of professional development needed to enable effective collaboration:

Question:

What does an effective language acquisition program look like?

Answer:

Extensive research in the field of second language acquisition supports bilingual programs as effective models for second language acquisition. Researchers maintain that bilingual education promotes high levels of literacy in both the native and target languages.

In planning instruction that emphasizes biliteracy development, teachers need to:

  • understand the theoretical principles of second language acquisition to implement second language acquisition program models
  • plan instruction around themes to maximize learners' opportunities for language and academic development
  • integrate the language arts skills (speaking, listening, reading, and writing) in every instructional unit
  • follow a progression that moves from a teacher-guided approach to higher levels of independent work
  • stimulate high levels of student involvement and participation in class
  • make use of a variety of teaching strategies to help learners develop concept and critical thinking skills
  • conduct on-going assessment to monitor English language and literacy development
  • engage in collaborative efforts with administrators to ensure that the program is congruent with sound pedagogical principles
  • infuse multicultural literature into the curriculum to promote appreciation of their own and each other's culture
  • engage in continuous professional growth and reflection on their teaching practices
  • advocate for English language learners by being informed about research on programs and modes of delivery of instruction

All models of instruction assume high levels of support from family, school administration, community, and well-trained teachers with background on both first and second language development.

Question:

What are some things I can do to make the new ELLs in my class feel comfortable?

Answer:

As a rule of thumb, individuals feel comfortable in situations where they feel welcomed and valued, comfortable about taking risks, successful, respected, and free to express their opinions and desires — an environment they feel they belong to. The conditions are not different for language learners. Teachers need to first attempt to lower students' affective filters and create a learning community in the classroom before they can attempt to teach content. How can they do that? Below are some ideas.

  • Learn how to pronounce students' names correctly.
  • Express a warm, friendly, and caring attitude towards students.
  • Value their participation in the learning process, even if it is through nonverbal responses.
  • Make instructional accommodations to facilitate SOESOL students' learning.
  • Invite parents to become partners in the teaching of their children.
  • Incorporate aspects of the each child's culture into the curriculum.
  • Learn about each student's native culture and a few utterances in his/her native language.
  • Create an inclusive learning community in the classroom.
  • Use a variety of instructional strategies to meet the diverse needs and learning styles of the students.
  • Establish equal eye contact with all students.
  • Provide opportunities for equal classroom participation for all students.
  • Vary group composition so that students can work with all students in the learning community.
  • Periodically change the physical arrangement of the classroom to emphasize different student-student interactive patterns.
  • Maintain open channels of communication with students.
  • Attempt to make home visits to have a more holistic view of the learner.
  • Make the school community aware of some unique characteristics of the students' cultures through bulletin boards or other resources.
  • Make suggestions for bilingual materials that can be added to the school library.
  • Share the success and progress of second language learners with the school community.
  • Adopt a multicultural teaching approach.
  • View diversity as an asset for learning and not an obstacle.

The video "Starting Points: I Don't Know Where To Start" is a good reference for teachers attempting to help second language learners assimilate into the target culture.

Question:

Where can I find curriculum resources to teach ELLs in a mainstream classroom?

Answer:

Funding for curriculum resources is always an issue in school divisions. There are plenty of internet resources that can provide teachers with ideas and lesson plan samples at no cost.

Some recommended sites are listed below:

  • Everything ESL — This site is a comprehensive listing of ESL internet resources for teachers teaching all age groups.
    You can also find some useful graphic organizers for content instruction
  • Internet TESL Journal — This site has an extensive repertoire of activities teachers can use in mainstream classroom situations. The activities are broken down in categories (e.g., reading, writing, pronunciation and oral skills). The site also brings a variety of additional references to games, music, etc.
  • Electronic forums for written interaction — The name says it all; from professor Michael Krauss at the Lewis & Clark College in Portland, Oregon.

Teachers interested in subscribing to the Content ESL Listserv can engage in discussions with other professionals on how to help non-native students develop academic competence in the mainstream classroom.

Those with funding to purchase materials to help ELLs in the mainstream classroom can find some good references in the links below.

Question:

Many of the ELLs in my class are able to decode English text, but continue to struggle with reading comprehension. How can I help them develop comprehension skills?

Answer:

It is important to remember that comprehension instruction does not just occur after reading is completed. Assigning "comprehension questions" for students to answer after they have read a passage may test comprehension, but this is not a strategy that teaches comprehension. In order to be effective, comprehension instruction must include activities that occur before, during, and after reading.

The goals of "before reading" activities are to activate prior knowledge and to provide a purpose for reading. Research suggests that the brain stores information in a series of schemata, or mental frameworks. The more we know about a particular subject, the more complex our schema for that subject becomes. For example, an adult would probably have a very well-developed schema for the topic "income taxes" while a third grader would probably have a very limited schema for that topic. Effective "before reading" activities help access and expand students' schemata for the topic being studied. Anticipation Guides, ABC Brainstorming, and Carousel Brainstorming are three excellent strategies for before reading (See links below).

"During reading" activities teach students to monitor their comprehension as they read and help them to focus their attention on important ideas, themes, and vocabulary. English language learners who are having difficulty with English comprehension, like most struggling readers, often do not self-monitor. Instead, they continue to make their way through the words of a passage, even when they don't understand what they are reading. Activities that cause students to stop and make sure they understand what the passage is saying can be extremely helpful to these students. Some excellent examples are the Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) and journaling.

"After reading" activities encourage students to synthesize and reflect upon what they have read and to organize the information they have gathered in a logical and meaningful way. There are a number of graphic organizers that can be used effectively as after reading activities. Class discussion and writing activities are especially effective after reading strategies.

Here are some useful links on comprehension strategies:

Question:

What resources are available for teachers of ELLs that are 2, 3, 4, and 5 years old? We have quite a variety of languages in our school.

Answer:

You might begin by exploring the TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) website, which offers ESL standards for PreK through 12th grade. The Texas Education Agency has also published very detailed curriculum guidelines for PreK, which include guidelines for ESL students.

Explore the Colorín Colorado website for activities to use in the classroom. The Families section has many resources that would be excellent for use in the PreK classroom with ELLs from any background. The section called Fun Reading Tips and Activities, for example, has links to lots of activities that build phonological awareness and other important early literacy skills. In the Educators section, the page on Reading in Kindergarten also has many resources that would be great for PreK, as well as Kindergarten.

You can also find a wide variety of excellent activities on the PALS (Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening) website. In the Activities section, under Instructional Resources, you can click on skills such as "phonological awareness" and "writing" and then choose "Prekindergarten" or "Kindergarten" to find activities specifically designed for students at those levels.

Question:

One part of my lesson planning is to develop lessons with a multicultural perspective. Are you aware of a rubric or questionnaire that evaluates texts based on multicultural qualities?

Answer:

In Multicultural Children's Literature: Creating and Applying an Evaluation Tool in Response to the Needs of Urban Educators, Jennifer Johnson Higgins provides an excellent checklist for evaluating multicultural literature for children. The article also includes a review of the literature on this topic, as well as an annotated bibliography of children's books with multicultural themes. Although the checklist was designed for use with children's literature, it could easily be adapted to any type of text.

Question:

Where can I find teaching methodologies for ESL? I am in my second year of teaching and haven't had a methods class in four years.

Answer:

Colorín Colorado has a wealth of resources that will help you in planning instruction for your ESL students. The "For Educators" section includes information on many topics, including assessment, literacy instruction, and content area teaching. Be sure to check out our "Web Resources," which will take you to some great articles and online resources.

The Reading Rockets website also has lots of useful information for ESL teachers. In "Articles from A-Z," there is a section on English language learners where you can download a variety of articles. You might also want to explore the TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages website). In the "Emerging Teachers" section, there is a feature called Teaching English as a Foreign Language: Questions and Answers, which uses a question-and-answer format to present information on teaching specific skills, planning lessons, and many other topics of interest to ESL teachers.

Question:

Does it help if my ELLs know how to read in Spanish?

Answer:

It helps immensely if your students know how to read in Spanish and have content area knowledge in Spanish. Several skills can easily transfer from one language to the other. Research tells us that when your students are fully literate in Spanish, they will learn how to read in English more quickly and will transfer some of their literacy skills from Spanish to English.

ELLs do this particularly at the beginning stages of English proficiency; they lean on their Spanish knowledge to analyze patterns in English. It is very important to allow ELLs to transfer these skills and express themselves in the language they know best. They will rely less on this transfer as they become proficient and comfortable in English.

ELLs who are not literate in Spanish take longer to learn English. There are a number of factors that can help speed up their process of learning to read in English. These factors include how much time you spend on daily reading, the reading strategies you use to teach ELLs, how much reading is done at home, and how much help you receive from the ELLs' parents or guardians.

Question:

I'm looking for resources for ELL students who are not Spanish speakers. Where can I find help translating enrollment forms, developing an ELL parent guide, and developing standards-based curriculum for these students?

Answer:

Much of the information on the Colorín Colorado website is applicable to all English language learners, not just those whose first language is Spanish. You are certain to find something that you can use in almost every section. Be sure to check out the reading tip sheets for parents, which are provided in nine languages in addition to Spanish. Also, explore the Web Resources section for links to a variety of excellent resources for teachers of English language learners. One of the links you will find there is to the NCELA (National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition) website. In addition, check the resources on the TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) website, where you will find lots of useful information, including ESL standards for PreK through 12th grade.

Another excellent website is called everything ESL. It has wonderful lesson plans and teaching tips, as well as links to other great sites. Finally, you might want to explore the OWL (Online Writing Lab) website, produced by Purdue University, and the Bank Street College Literacy Guide website. Both have lots of great resources for teachers of ELLs.