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Teachers who work with English as a Second Language learners will find ESL/ESOL/ELL/EFL reading/writing skill-building children's books, stories, activities, ideas, strategies to help PreK-3, 4-8, and 9-12 students learn to read.

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Research & Reports

Writing

A Cognitive Strategies Approach to Reading and Writing Instruction for English Language Learners in Secondary School

Summary: Cognitive strategies, such as predicting, summarizing, and reflecting — strategies used by experienced readers and writers — are vital to the development of academic literacy, but these strategies are too rarely taught explicitly, especially to English Language Learners (ELLs). This study reports the results of a California Writing Project study in which 55 teachers implemented a cognitive-strategies approach to reading and writing instruction for their ELL secondary students over an eight-year period and includes a detailed description of a teacher's cognitive strategies "tool kit."

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Tags: Comprehension; Curriculum; Instructional Programs; Intervention; Motivation; Reading; Writing;

Copyright 2007 by the National Council of Teachers of English. Used with permission. Olson, C.B. and Land, R. (2007). A Cognitive Strategies Approach to Reading and Writing Instruction for English Language Learners in Secondary School. Research in the Teaching of English, 41(3), http://www.ncte.org/pubs/journals/rte/articles/126617.htm.

Advancing Adolescent Literacy: The Cornerstone of School Reform

Author: Carnegie Corporation of New York

Summary: The emergence of a global economy has raised the standards of literacy around the world. This report examines the trend of adolescent readers not holding up to the international literacy standards and the initiatives/reforms being done to combat this. The report is a summation of additional reports compiled by the organization “focused on a range of relevant topics such as comprehension assessment, out-of-school learning, writing in adolescence, literacy coaching standards, instructional needs of second language learners and literacy in the content areas.”

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Tags: Books and Other Reading Materials; Phonological Awareness; Reading; Spelling; Transfer of Literacy Skills; Writing;

Target Population: Elementary, Middle, High School

Research Questions the Report Poses: What steps can be taken improve literacy instruction in grades 4-12 (especially among adolescents)?

Findings:

  • The most recent data show that although U.S. students in grade four score among the best in the world, those in grade eight score much lower. And by grade ten, U.S. students score among the lowest in the world.
  • Lack of literacy skills renders students unable to understand, evaluate and judge the information they hear and read, or to convey complex ideas, whether in the college classroom or the workplace-all of which act as a barrier to finding employment and exercising their full rights as citizens.
  • A lack of capacity, time and will for middle and high school teachers to teach literacy within their content areas;
  • Inadequate reinforcement of comprehension of "informational text" in early reading;
  • Few strategies provided pupils at the end of the third grade for dealing with a rapid shift from narrative to expository text;
  • Absence of systemic thinking in schools about literacy beyond age eight;
  • Decrease in students' motivation to read as they progress from fourth through twelfth grade;
  • Middle and high school designs with insufficient capacity to identify and target students requiring literacy assistance;
  • Little awareness by parents and community groups that literacy instruction needs to continue after children have acquired basic decoding skills.
  • Districts need to focus on increasing capacity (particularly training teachers) to adopt literacy practices within the school day, especially to embed literacy practices within content areas.
  • Attention should be devoted to special challenges of English language learners.
  • Reform efforts need to make literacy a central concern and to build ideas for advancing literacy into school redesign.

Advancing Adolescent Literacy: The Cornerstone of School Reform. (2010). New York, NY: Carnegie Corporation of New York.

Approaches to Writing Instruction for Adolescent English Language Learners: A Discussion of Recent Research and Practice Literature in Relation to Nationwide Standards on Writing

Author: The Education Alliance-Brown University; Fogelman, C., Harrington, M., Kenney, E., Pacheco, M., Panofsky, C., Santos, J., et al.

Summary: With increasing and higher standards set by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), and changes in the SAT writing assessment, students are required to show proficiency using a variety of writing styles both in school and eventually the workplace. Yet as the ESL field has focused more on oral language and language structures rather than writing proficiency, ELLs — and their instructors — are often unprepared to successfully complete intensive writing assessments. As a result, the authors of the report argue that there is a need to pinpoint and understand a knowledge base for teaching writing to adolescent ELLs.

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Tags: Curriculum; Instructional Programs; Language of Instruction; Language Proficiency; Motivation; Reading; Struggling Readers; Transfer of Literacy Skills; Writing;

Target Population: Middle, High School, Post-Secondary

Research Questions the Report Poses:

  • What is the available research base and practice literature to help teachers prepare ELLs to meet the standards?
  • What is the quality and quantity of the research base?
  • How does it contribute to efforts to improve pedagogy, curricula, and programming?
  • Is there a common set of standards for writing across the nation, and if so, what is it?
  • Does the research and practice literature connect to the standards? If so, how?
  • Where are the gaps, if any, between the research and the standards?

Findings:

  • The field of ESL is based on applied linguistics, which has historically focused on oral language and language structure, rather than writing composition. The assumption that oral language precedes and leads to written language ignores the possibility that written language can be a source for oral language development.
  • Second language learning research has focused on young or elementary age learners or on higher education and international students but rarely on adolescents, especially U.S. resident and immigrant ELLs.
  • The field of composition has focused on native speakers and assumes native competence of writing students, and even when L2 research began to focus on writing, it was in foreign language contexts (EFL and FL teaching) and at the college level.
  • ELLs in U.S. high schools receive insufficient writing instruction in ESL; insufficient oral and structural language support in mainstream English; and insufficient content instruction prior to mainstreaming.
  • Assessment of second language writing is complex and problematic; timed writing often results in significant underperformance of ELLs, and raters are overly influenced by surface level of L2 writing.
  • Motivations for revision and peer interaction are based on context rather than individual learner characteristics.
  • The use of computers can facilitate production and revision of written texts.
  • Teacher feedback varies in effectiveness and is most successful for immigrant and U.S. resident adolescent students when it is specific (rather than global), when it identifies examples from the student's writing, when it asks for specific information from personal experience or texts, and when it uses indirect error correction (identifying error but requiring student to correct it).
  • A disciplinary division of labor exists between the fields of ESL and mainstream English language arts and composition that significantly affects research, curricula, and teacher preparation.

Policy Recommendations:

  • There is a need for studies that can provide a solid knowledge base on both middle and high school ELLs.
  • Substantial research should be done on what works for effective writing instruction of school-age adolescent ELLs.
  • Studies on successful strategies should include: classroom activities, including instruction, interaction, and reading and writing.
  • Writing instruction programs need to be examined against the pattern of school structures, the knowledge base of the ESL teachers and the curriculum of the program, and the knowledge base of mainstream teachers.
  • Students need to be assessed in oral and written proficiency.
  • Students' and parents attitudes on satisfaction with the writing program at their school need to be surveyed.

Fogelman, C., Harrington, M., Kenney, E., Pacheco, M., Panofsky, C., Santos, J., et al. (2005). Approaches to Writing Instruction for Adolescent English Language Learners: A Discussion of Recent Research and Practice Literature in Relation to Nationwide Standards on Writing. Providence, RI: The Education Alliance at Brown University.

Developing Literacy in Second-Language Learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth

Author: National Literacy Panel, Diane August, Timothy Shanahan

Summary: The National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Children and Youth systematically and rigorously examined the research on acquiring literacy in a second language. This is the executive summary of the full report, which is available for purchase through the Center for Applied Linguistics.

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Tags: Bilingual Instruction; Bilingualism / Biliteracy; Comprehension; Content Areas: Math; Content Areas: Science; Content Areas: Social Studies; Content Areas: The Arts; Curriculum; Differentiated Instruction; Fluency; Instructional Programs; Intervention; Language of Instruction; Language Proficiency; Phonics; Phonological Awareness; Placement; Vocabulary; Writing;

Target Population: Preschool, Elementary, Middle, High School

Research Questions the Report Poses: How do ELL students acquire literacy in a second language?

Findings:

  • Instructional approaches that focus on phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension-have clear benefits for ELLs. Like their native English speaking peers, ELLs benefit from these strategies as well as writing instruction.
  • For students to become literate in English several instructional qualities need to be met including: content coverage, intensity and thorough instruction,
  • ELL specific instruction, monitoring learning, and teacher preparation.
  • Oral proficiency and literacy in the first language can be used to facilitate literacy development in English.
  • Researchers have documented few sociocultural impacts on literacy achievement or development. However, researchers have found that home language experiences can have a positive impact on literacy achievement.

August, D. and Shanahan, T. (2006). Developing Literacy in Second-Language Learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Center for Applied Linguistics, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ.

Ensuring Academic Success for English Learners

Author: Laurie Olson, UC Linguistic Minority Research Institute

Summary: This report, or position paper, highlights nine elements of a strong program, based on three decades of research. The report recommends best practices that include accessible preschool programs, support for newcomers of all ages, and a focus on English language development.

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Tags: Bilingual Instruction; Bilingualism / Biliteracy; Comprehension; Curriculum; Differentiated Instruction; Fluency; Instructional Programs; Intervention; Language of Instruction; Language Proficiency; Parent Involvement and Outreach / PTA; Struggling Readers; Transfer of Literacy Skills; Vocabulary; Writing;

Target Population: Preschool, Elementary, Middle, High School

Research Questions the Report Poses: The paper provides an overview of research and knowledge that educators can use to create schools in which English learners thrive and achieve at high levels.

Policy Recommendations:

  • Invest in building a qualified educator workforce;
  • Build a meaningful accountability system for English learners;
  • Assure that educators have the materials they need to deliver high quality English Language Development; and
  • Demonstrate new models of successful schools for English learners

To order a hard copy of the report, contact:
University of California
Linguistic Minority Research Institute
4722 South Hall
Santa Barbara, CA 93106-3220

Olsen, L. (2006). Ensuring Academic Success for English Learners. University of California: Linguistic Minority Research Institute.

Improving Literacy Outcomes for English Language Learners in High School: Considerations for States and Districts in Developing a Coherent Policy Framework

Author: National High School Center, Nanette Koelsch

Summary: This overview from the National High School Center examines the roles of states and school districts in supporting English Language Learners. Among the key findings: ELL students who access accelerated and enriching academics, rather than remediation, succeed at higher levels. In addition, Latino ELL students are overrepresented in special education. In order to build the capacity of teachers to appropriately identify which ELL students would benefit from special education services and which would benefit from more inclusive strategies, states must be explicit about what is expected of professional development and teacher preparedness.

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Tags: Comprehension; Instructional Programs; Intervention; Language Proficiency; Latino ELL Students; Placement; Writing;

Target Population: Middle, High School, Post-Secondary

Research Questions the Report Poses: What issues should states consider to improve schooling for English language learners?

Findings:

  • ELLs need high quality instruction focused on advanced literacy skills and not just on language acquisition; and
  • Immersion-only programs lead to increased special education placements
  • Latino ELLs are overrepresented in special education and lower tracked classrooms;

Policy Recommendations:

  • States and districts need to redesign literacy work for ELLs in high schools to change from remediation to academic enrichment; and
  • States and districts need to ensure that ELLs participate in rigorous, college preparation courses and receive support so that they can succeed in these courses

To order a hard copy of the report, contact:
n/a

Koelsch, N. (2006). Improving literacy outcomes for English language learners in high school: Considerations for states and districts in developing a coherent policy Framework. National High School Center .

Measures of Change: The Demography and Literacy of Adolescent English Learners

Author: Jeanne Batalova, Michael Fix, and Julie Murray / Migration Policy Institute

Summary: This report from the Migration Policy Institute examines the increasing population of ELLs. It does this by examining the ELL population and developing a profile of ELL students, examining literacy achievement on both national and state math and reading assessments, and examining state identification, testing, and accommodation policies in the following states: California, Illinois, Colorado, and North Carolina.

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Tags: Language Proficiency; Latino ELL Students; Motivation; Reading; Transfer of Literacy Skills; Vocabulary; Writing;

Target Population: Elementary, Middle, High School

Research Questions the Report Poses:

  • Who are immigrant students and students who do not speak English well?
  • Where are they from, and what is their family background (social, economic, linguistic, etc.)?
  • How well do they do in school?
  • Do their literacy levels prepare them to take part in higher education and a skilled workforce?"

Findings:

  • ELL populations are growing faster than general student populations
  • The growth of ELL populations in different states varies widely
  • Students in California are more likely to be "linguistically isolated" than students across the country or in the other three states studied
  • 57% of ELLs across the country were born in the United States
  • 70% of ELLs in grades 6-12 speak Spanish
  • NAEP data examined for 8th grade ELLs shows that only 4% and 6% of ELLs scored proficient in reading and math, respectively
  • ELLs performed radically different on state math and reading assessments from state to state
  • There is a wide achievement gap between ELL and non-ELL students on the 8th grade NAEP as well as state standardized tests
  • Former ELL students and non-ELL students scored roughly the same on NAEP and state assessments

Policy Recommendations:

  • "Reexamine whether Census data accurately capture the [ELL] population"
  • "Examine how varying state exclusion rates for ELL students affect NAEP results"
  • "Explore the literacy trajectories of former [ELL] students"
  • "Document how states vary in their testing and monitoring practices for ELL students who parents opt out of language instruction services"
  • "Leverage the research opportunities that multi-state English proficiency tests offer for analyzing ELL outcomes"

To order a hard copy of the report, contact:
http://www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/index.php

Batalova, J., Fix, M., and Murray, J. (2007). Measures of Change: The Demography and Literacy of Adolescent English Learners. Migration Policy Institute, Carnegie Corporation of New York: New York, NY.

Meeting the Literacy Development Needs of Adolescent English Language Learners Through Content Area Learning: Focus on Classroom Teaching and Learning Strategies (Part II)

Author: Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory (LAB), The Education Alliance at Brown University, Julie Meltzer and Edmund Hamann

Summary: As with part one of this publication, part two amounts to a literature review. Part two looks for congruous instructional practices that are good for secondary ELL and native English speakers alike. The article shifts through a series of discussions about a variety of domains related to teaching and arrives at a conclusion in support of strategies beneficial to ELL students and native English language students.

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Tags: Content Areas: Math; Content Areas: Science; Content Areas: Social Studies; Differentiated Instruction; Intervention; Motivation; Placement; Reading; Struggling Readers; Transfer of Literacy Skills; Vocabulary; Writing;

Target Population: Middle, High School

Research Questions the Report Poses: What instructional practices dovetail in both the ELL adolescent literacy literature and non-ELL adolescent literacy literature?

Findings:
Eight instructional approaches are supported in both literatures (what's good for ELL adolescents and adolescent native English speakers):

  1. teacher modeling, strategy instruction, and using multiple forms of assessment;
  2. emphasis on reading and writing;
  3. emphasis on speaking and listening/viewing;
  4. emphasis on thinking;
  5. creating a learner-centered classroom;
  6. recognizing and analyzing content-area discourse features;
  7. understanding text structures within the content areas; and
  8. vocabulary development.

Policy Recommendations:
Any intervention aimed at ELLs should also benefit under–served learners generally.

To order a hard copy of the report, contact:
The Education Alliance at Brown
222 Richmond Street, Suite 300
Providence, RI 02903-4226
Phone: 800.521.9550
Fax: 401.421.7650
E-mail: info@alliance.brown.edu

Meltzer, J. & Hamann, E. (2004). Meeting the literacy development needs of adolescent English language learners. Part two: Focus on classroom teaching and learning strategies. Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory .

Meeting the Literacy Development Needs of Adolescent English Language Learners Through Content Area Learning: Part One: Focus on Motivation and Engagement

Author: Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory (LAB), The Education Alliance at Brown University, Julie Meltzer and Edmund Hamann

Summary: This article reviews the major research findings as they relate to engagement and motivation of ELL adolescents. The highlighted research is meant to explore the confluence of two areas of study — literacy development and schooling practices for ELLs and native English speakers — and serve as a guide for professional development for secondary teachers. The literature review explores school and classroom contexts; instructional principles like relevance, choice, and student-centered classrooms; and instructional practices like scaffolding and activating prior knowledge as they relate to adolescent ELLs.

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Tags: Content Areas: Math; Content Areas: Science; Content Areas: Social Studies; Motivation; Placement; Reading; Struggling Readers; Transfer of Literacy Skills; Vocabulary; Writing;

Target Population: Middle, High School

Research Questions the Report Poses: Review of the literature concerning student motivation and engagement on literacy development of adolescents and research on the schooling of adolescent ELLs.

Findings:

  • literacy development and effective instruction for ELL and non-ELL adolescents alike share many commonalities;
  • isolated ELL students are further negatively impacted as a result of these findings; and
  • content-area teachers may benefit from research and practices designed for ELL teachers
"

Policy Recommendations:

  • Teachers should use current secondary school ELL literature to create a blueprint of classroom contexts in which ELLs will be motivated and engaged to read and write across the content areas, and where reading and writing will contribute to their broader academic achievement.
  • Schools should train all secondary–school teachers to promote content–area literacy for ELLs.
  • To promote ELLs' or other students' continued development and application of literacy skills for academic learning, educators should plan opportunities that
    1. provide the environmental resources to support the work (i.e., various text materials);
    2. are grounded by high expectations that students can achieve or surpass the state standards and
    3. engage students-that they involve choice, are authentic, promote self–efficacy, and support autonomy.

To order a hard copy of the report, contact:
The Education Alliance at Brown
222 Richmond Street, Suite 300
Providence, RI 02903-4226
Phone: 800.521.9550
Fax: 401.421.7650
E-mail: info@alliance.brown.edu

Meltzer, J. & Hamann, E. (2004). Meeting the literacy development needs of adolescent English language learners. Part one: Focus on motivation and engagement. Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory.

New Measures of English Language Proficiency and Their Relationship to Performance on Large-Scale Content Assessments

Author: Caroline Parker, Josephine Louie, Laura O'Dwyer. Institute of Education Sciences. U.S. Department of Education.

Summary: The U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences (IES)’s "New Measures of English Language Proficiency and their Relationship to Performance on Large-scale Content Assessments" (2009) reports the findings of a study designed to determine whether students' performance on an English proficiency assessment (ACCESS for ELLs) could predict their performance on a large-scale content assessment (the New England Common Assessment Program, or NECAP). The findings are important because they demonstrate that the English proficiency assessments that schools depend upon to guide placement and instruction for their English language learners can, indeed, be effective for that purpose, and they can also help schools identify students who may have difficulty on large-scale content assessments. In addition, these findings point teachers and administrators to the types of proficiency tasks that are the best indicators of students' performance in content area subjects (i.e., reading and writing tasks as opposed to listening and speaking tasks).

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Tags: Language Proficiency; Reading; Writing;

Target Population: Elementary, Middle School

Research Questions the Report Poses: How does performance in four language domains on an English language proficiency assessment predict English language learner students' performance on a state content assessment after accounting for student and school characteristics?

Findings:

  • English language proficiency, in the domains of reading and writing, were significant predictors of performance on reading, writing, and mathematics content assessments in fifth and eighth grades.
  • Reading and writing were stronger predictors of content area performance than the oral language skills of speaking and listening.

Parker, C. E., Louie, J., and O'Dwyer, L. (2009). New measures of English language proficiency and their relationship to performance on large-scale content assessments (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2009-No. 066). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast and Islands. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs.

Practical Guidelines for the Education of English Language Learners: Research-based Recommendations for the Instruction and Academic Interventions

Author: David J. Francis and Mabel Rivera/Center on Instruction English Language Learners Strand, Nonie Lesaux and Michael Kieffer/Havard Graduate School of Education, Hector Rivera/Center on Instruction English Language Learners Strand

Summary: After briefly highlighting the characteristics of and how to best identify ELL students, this article shows the importance of effective instruction and intervention not only for academically struggling ELL students, but also for all ELL students including those individuals who are linguistically fluent in English. Before looking into the proposed recommendations the article also briefly looks into the importance of mastering academic language skills as key elements to academic success. The importance of academic language skills is revisited under the recommendations sections for both reading comprehension and mathematics.

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Tags: American Indian ELL Students; Asian ELL Students; Comprehension; Content Areas: Math; Fluency; Instructional Programs; Intervention; Language of Instruction; Language Proficiency; Latino ELL Students; Other ELL Students (Middle Eastern, African, European, etc.); Phonics; Phonological Awareness; Reading; Struggling Readers; Vocabulary; Writing;

Target Population: Elementary School, Middle School, High School

Research Questions the Report Poses: What students are classified as being English Language Learners? How are they best identified, and what recommendations should be made to more adequately instruct possible ELL students to prevent further learning difficulties?

Findings:

  • Statistics for ELLs may be hard to obtain or may be inaccurate since many ELL students go without being properly identified
  • ELL students can better from more individualized instruction
  • Mastery of academic language is necessary for academic success, which can prove to be difficult even for English speaking proficient ELLs
  • In order to provide effective support of reading comprehension to ELLs educators must have an understanding of the child's individual needs
  • In addition to reading comprehension it is crucial for students to become proficient in mathematics

Policy Recommendations:
While the article did not have any specific policy recommendations the recommendations listed in the article could be taken as such and thus included in this section.

Recommendations for Reading Instruction and interventions:

  • ELLs need early, explicit, and intensive instruction in phonological awareness and phonics in order to build decoding skills.
  • K-12 classrooms across the nation must increase opportunities for ELLs to develop sophisticated vocabulary knowledge.
  • Reading instruction in K-12 classrooms must equip ELLs with strategies and knowledge to comprehend and analyze challenging narrative and expository texts.
  • Instruction and intervention to promote ELLs' reading fluency must focus on vocabulary and increased exposure to print.
  • In all K-12 classrooms across the U.S., ELLs need significant opportunities to engage in structured, academic talk.
  • Independent reading is only beneficial when it is structured and purposeful, and there is a good reader-text match.
Recommendations for Mathematics Instruction:

  • ELLs need early explicit and intensive instruction and intervention in basic mathematics concepts and skill.
  • Academic language is as central to mathematics as it is to other academic areas. It is a significant source of difficulty for many ELLs who struggle with mathematics.
  • ELLs need academic language support to understand and solve the word problems that are often used for mathematics assessment and instruction.

To order a hard copy of the report, contact:
N/A

Francis, David J., Mabel Rivera, Nonie Lesaux, and Hector Rivera. (2006). Research-Based Recommendations for Instruction and Academic Interventions. Practical Guidelines for the Education of English Language Learners, Retrieved April 11,2008, from http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/ELL1-Interventions.pdf

The Role of English Teachers in Educating English Language Learners (ELLs)

Author: National Council of Teachers of English (ELL Task Force)

Summary: This position paper is designed to address the knowledge and skills mainstream teachers need to have in order to develop effective curricula that engage English language learners, develop their academic skills, and help them negotiate their identities as bilingual learners. More specifically, this paper addresses the language and literacy needs of these learners as they participate and learn in English-medium classes. NCTE has made clear bilingual students' right to maintain their native languages. Thus, this paper addresses ways teachers can help these students develop English as well as ways they can support their students' bilingualism. In the United States bilingual learners, more commonly referred to as English language learners, are defined as students who know a language other than English and are learning English. Students' abilities range from being non-English speakers to being fully proficient. The recommendations in this paper apply to all of them.

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Tags: Comprehension; Curriculum; Language Proficiency; Reading; Struggling Readers; Vocabulary; Writing;

Target Population: All

Research Questions the Report Poses: What are the needs of ELLs? How can teachers address these needs?

Findings:

  • Teachers need to get to know their students and about their home situations in order to be most effective.
  • Writing well in English is often the most difficult skill for English language learners to master. Thus teachers should be aware that English language learners may not be familiar with standard American writing procedure like drafting, revision, editing, workshop, conference, audience, purpose, or genre.
  • The best way to help students learn both English and the knowledge of school subjects is to teach language through content.

Policy Recommendations:

  • Colleges and universities should offer pre-service teachers preparation in teaching ELLs including coursework in language acquisition, second language writing and readings, and culture classes.
  • High school English departments should integrate programs that welcome and help acculturate late-arrival immigrant and refugee students with low literacy skills.
  • The report also provides numerous practical recommendations for strategies in the classroom in various subjects.

To order a hard copy of the report, contact:
The National Council of Teachers of English 1111 W. Kenyon Road, Urbana, IL 61801-1096 Phone: 217-328-3870 or 877-369-6283 Fax: 217-328-9645

NCTE ELL Task Force. (2006). NCTE Position Paper on the Role of English Teachers in Educating English Language Learners. National Council of Teachers of English: Urbana, IL.