An important first step in helping English language learners (ELLs) succeed is making them feel welcome in the classroom.
- increase their confidence
- make them feel more comfortable in the class
- build a foundation for positive relationships with you and their peers.
Here's how you can get started!
Stages of Cultural Accommodation
Use these ideas in PD!
ESOL specialist Becky Corr shares ideas on how to use these strategies for professional development in this video.
The ELL student population includes students who were born in the U.S. and students who have immigrated from another country. For ELLs who have recently arrived in the U.S., they will face the challenge of learning a new language in addition to adjusting to an unfamiliar cultural setting and school system.
On a daily basis, ELLs are adjusting to new ways of saying and doing things. As their teacher, you are an important bridge to this unknown culture and school system.
In the same way that ELLs go through stages of English language learning, they may also pass through stages of cultural accommodation. These stages, however, may be less defined and more difficult to notice. Being aware of these stages may help you to better understand "unusual" actions and reactions that may just be part of adjusting to a new culture.
- Euphoria: ELLs may experience an initial period of excitement about their new surroundings.
- Culture shock: ELLs may then experience anger, hostility, frustration, homesickness, or resentment towards the new culture.
- Acceptance: ELLs may gradually accept their different surroundings.
- Assimilation/adaptation: ELLs may embrace and adapt to their surroundings and their "new" culture.
What is the 'silent period'?
It is also common for students who are learning a new language to be 'silent' for a period of time, when they are listening to the language around them without speaking yet (much as a young child listens to language first before learning to talk). This is considered the first stage of language acquisition.
Patience and creating opportunities for small successes in speaking with you and peers can help build students' confidence. In addition, keep in mind that students' silence could also be a sign of respect for you as an authority – and not a sign of their inability or refusal to participate.
Experience with trauma
Students may also have experienced trauma or face different kinds of hardship in the U.S. You can better prepare yourself for this possibility by:
- taking some time to learn about some different ELL subgroups, such as refugees and unaccompanied children
- learning about students' experiences from colleagues such as family liaisons and ESL educators
- learning about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on immigrant families
- requesting training in trauma-informed practice.
Learn more from the following:
- Using a Strengths-Based Approach with ELs: Supporting Students Living with Trauma, Violence and Chronic Stress
Videos: You Are Welcome Here
This award-winning documentary highlights how the Dearborn, MI public school district is helping its immigrant students succeed. Learn more about this project and see related videos.
Getting to Know Students
Learn how to pronounce students' names correctly
- Take the time to learn how to pronounce your ELLs' names correctly.
- Ask them to say their name.
- Listen carefully and repeat it until you know it.
- Model the correct pronunciation of ELLs' names to the class so that all students can say the correct pronunciation.
- Consider an activity in which students can share the meaning of their name, such as this Name Story activity or these related name activities.
Don't forget to smile and use positive body language!
A lot of communication happens through expressions, body language, and tone. Smiling and using positive body language can go a long way in making students feel welcome and comfortable, particularly if they are newcomers, as seen in the vignette shared by a teacher below.
Build relationships with students
Veteran teachers of ELLs always point to building relationships as the most important step in their work with ELLs. Not only does it increase engagement and support students' later academic success, it also provides invaluable information that can inform your instruction and family engagement.
In addition, it can help build bridges with students who may have particularly unique experiences, such as children in migrant farmwork families or Indigenous students.
See more ideas on how to build these relationships from the following:
- 8 Strategies for Building Relationships with ELLs in Any Learning Environment
- Getting to Know Your ELLs: Six Steps for Success
- Making Your First ELL Home Visit: A Guide for Classroom Teachers
- 10 Things You Need to Know About Your ELLs
Video: Showing students you care
Corpus Christi teacher Christine Price talks about the importance of showing students you care early on.
Identify students' strengths and interests
It's important to remember that ELLs bring lots of strengths, talents, and rich experiences to the classroom. Getting to know students' interests can help:
- build rapport
- engage students in learning
- find connections with new friends.
Families are also an important source of information and are often happy to talk about the activities that their child enjoys. They may also appreciate the fact that their child's teacher is taking an interest in the child's strengths and talents. (This is especially true in special education settings.)
Video: My students' many talents
Teacher Omar Salem describes a student who not only sings and dances but manages her own YouTube channel and edits all of the video she posts of her performances.
Video: Using parent letters to get to know my students
Albuquerque teacher Clara Gonzales-Espinoza asks her parents to write her a letter at the beginning of each school year telling her about the child's personality, interests, strengths, and anything else they think she should know. In this interview, Clara speaks more about this strategy and its impact on her relationships with parents and students.
Ensure that students have information about activities and clubs
Make sure that students have information about extra-curricular activities, sports, and clubs related to their interests. You can also encourage them to start their own club within the school.
ELL educator Christine Rowland notes, "Many students find involvement in school clubs and teams to be extremely helpful, as they are often experts in these areas, and they can provide a space where they more easily feel they belong."
Welcoming Students' Language and Culture
Invite students' cultures into the classroom
Encourage ELLs and their families to share their culture with you and your class. Show-and-tell is a good opportunity for ELLs to bring in something representative of their culture, if they wish.
Invite students and families to:
- share photographs, visuals, or meaningful artifacts such as flags or mementos
- tell a popular story or folktale using words, pictures, gestures, and movements
- share information about important holidays or celebrations.
Looking beyond the classroom
Imagine that you are walking into your school for the first time as a parent.
- What do you see on the walls?
- If your first language weren't English, would you see signs in your language?
- Would you see flags, maps, or books representing your home country?
- Would you see your child’s work on display in the hallway?
If you think more could be done to make families feel welcome, consider:
- sharing some ideas with colleagues or administrators and taking small steps that you can point to as successes
- looking for opportunities to celebrate all families and their languages, customs, and cultures, whether in the classroom or at a school-wide event
- keeping a lookout for a special part of their lives that other families might appreciate getting to know.
See more ideas in the following:
- Welcoming students' languages and cultures
- Welcoming students' celebrations and family traditions
- Making immigrant students and families feel welcome in school settings
- Engaging ELL Families: 20 Strategies for Success
Video: What happened when the students realized the Yemeni flag wasn't on stage
ELD Specialist Diana Alqadhi tells the story of some students who realized that the Yemeni flag was not featured prominently enough on stage before a school show.
Invite students' languages into the classroom
Label classroom objects to allow ELLs to better understand their immediate surroundings. These labels will also assist you when explaining or giving directions, and it gives peers an additional opportunity to learn some words in their classmates' language.
- Start with everyday items, such as "door/puerta," "book/libro," and "chair/silla."
- You may wish to ask students who can write in their first language or family members to help you with this project.
You can also invite students to teach the class some words from their home language.
Learn more about the resources available in students' home languages
Students benefit from support in their home language — what Dr. Fred Genesee calls their "most valuable resource." You have may have access to learning material in students' languages, or you may be able to find resources that support those languages.
Language access for multilingual families
In addition, it's critical to understand what language access resources you have available through your school and district, particularly for communication with families. Keep in mind that all families have a legal right to information in their home language. Family liaisons, interpreters, ESL teachers, or administrators may have more information about what language access resources are available in your district.
Video: What Do School Districts Need to Know About Language Access?
This helpful overview about what language access means for school districts is a great introduction to the requirements, best practices, and funding streams related to language access in public education. This interview features Dr. Jennifer Love, the Supervisor of Language Access and Engagement in Prince George's County Public Schools, Maryland.
Video: Language Access for Multilingual Families
What does appropriate language access mean for multilingual families? This interview also features Dr. Jennifer Love.
Ensure your students see themselves reflected in the classroom
Ask yourself if students can see representations of their culture, race, gender, and other aspects of identity reflected in your:
- classroom materials and library
- lesson plans and activities
- classroom visuals (both in-person and virtual).
- Look for ways incorporate books that represent your students' cultures across the curriculum and in your classroom library. Visit our recommended Books and Authors section for ideas.
- Learn more about culturally responsive instruction and tapping into students' funds of knowledge.
Success in the Classroom
Encourage your students
Some ELLs may not answer voluntarily in class or ask for your help even if they need it. ELLs may smile and nod, but this does not necessarily mean that they understand. Offer one-on-one support and encouragement as much as possible. For convenience, it may be helpful to seat ELLs near your desk.
Assign a buddy
Identify a classmate who will make a good buddy for new students — someone who is friendly, patient, and a good communicator to be a buddy. This student can make sure that the new student understands what he or she is supposed to do during class activities. It is helpful if the peer partner knows the ELL's first language, but not necessary. However, remember to never use another student as an interpreter in any situation.
Learn more about ways to increase peer interaction and collaboration in these related strategies.
Ask the class how they can help welcome new students
Ask students to brainstorm ways to help ELLs in particular. You may wish to make a list of ideas on how to welcome new students at the beginning of the year so that students have these strategies in mind if a student comes with little advance notice.
- Canadian students welcoming Syrian refugees (video)
- Sensitize Your Mainstream Students (Judie Haynes: everythingESL)
Be vigilant about health issues, dietary concerns, and allergies
Students may have specific health issues or dietary restrictions due to health, cultural, or religious reasons. Be sure that you learn all essential information you need to know about student health and diet from parents or guardians. For ELLs, be sure to confirm and clarify this information with the help of interpreters.
If you learn information about a student that would be helpful for other staff to know, particularly regarding health or food allergies, talk with administrators about how to keep the child safe. In addition, be sensitive to cultural or religious norms, such as fasting for religious reasons.
Keep an eye out for signs of culture shock
Moving to a new country and leaving a familiar life, relatives, friends, and language behind can be traumatic for children in the best of circumstances. Those challenges are compounded if children have experienced trauma, violence, or upheaval. Learn more about how culture shock can impact students in the classroom and affect student behavior so that you recognize signs if newcomers act out.
- How Culture Shock Affects ELLs (EverythingESL)
- Coping with Culture Shock (The Immigrant Education Society
Creating a Shared Classroom Culture
Encourage students to take ownership of the classroom culture
Ask students to answer the following questions through drawings or written responses.
- How can I be a good classmate to others?
- What are examples of unkind or disrespectful behavior in the classroom?
To support ELLs in their discussions of these questions:
- Encourage students who speak the same language to discuss their ideas in groups.
- Provide scaffolded materials such as graphic organizers, sentence stems, and sentence frames.
- Use a picture book to talk about different kinds of behavior with students.
Create a shared set of classroom expectations together
- Return to your earlier discussion of what a respectful classroom looks like.
- Brainstorm ideas on possible class rules based on that discussion.
- Streamline the list of class guidelines or rules.
- Add any rules or guidelines that are missing.
- In order to establish appropriate consequences for disrespectful behavior, you may wish to come up with ideas with the class or determine those consequences yourself.
- Post the final list classroom rules in the classroom.
- Translate the rules into ELLs’ native languages so that they can keep the list handy and share it at home.
To see an example of this proces in action, take a look at ELL expert Carol Salva’s process for developing a community contract each year.
- Operation Respect: Activities for Safe and Respectful Classroom Community (Share My Lesson)
- Creating Classroom Rules with a Bill of Student Rights (Edutopia)
- Creating a Classroom Contract (Facing History)
- A New Set of Rules: Creating a “Class Constitution” (Learning for Justice)
- Speak Up at School: How to Respond to Everyday Bias, Prejudice, and Stereotypes (Learning for Justice)
Help your ELLs understand expectations for the classroom
ELLs may need some extra support in understanding expectations for classroom behavior. Helping them understand these expectations can avoid misunderstandings, discipline problems, and feelings of low self-esteem.
At the same time, it's important to remember that students bridging two cultures may need guidance which behaviors are appropriate in which setting (such as eye contact, physical proximity, etc.). If you have questions, talk with a cultural liaison in the school to learn more about appropriate responses and ideas for helping students navigate a new culture. You can also learn more about cultural norms of your students, particularly related to schooling, to help inform your approach.
Here are a few strategies that you can use in class:
- Use visuals like pictures, symbols, and reward systems to communicate your expectations in a positive and direct manner.
- Physically model language to ELLs in classroom routines and instructional activities. ELLs will need to see you or their peers model behavior when you want them to sit down, walk to the bulletin board, work with a partner, copy a word, etc.
- Be consistent and fair with all students. Once ELLs clearly understand what is expected, hold them equally accountable for their behavior.
- Post a daily schedule. Even if ELLs do not yet understand all of the words that you speak, it is possible for them to understand the structure of each day. Whether through chalkboard art or images on Velcro, you can post the daily schedule each morning. By writing down times and having pictures next to words like lunch, wash hands, math, and field trip, ELLs can have a general sense of the upcoming day.
Finally, remember ELLs can make unintentional "mistakes" as they are trying hard to adjust to a new cultural setting. They are constantly transferring what they know as acceptable behaviors from their own culture to the U.S. classroom and school. Be patient as ELLs learn English and adjust — and remember that you will learn a lot from this experience too!
Videos: How can we make ELLs feel welcome in our schools?
These videos highlight helpful examples and ideas from educators across the country.
What to Do First: Creating a Welcoming Environment
Learn about these important first steps from teacher Amber Jimenez that will help ELLs feel welcome and get them on the path to academic success. Strategies include creating a print-rich environment and connecting content to students' cultures and experiences.
Top Tips for a Strong Start in a Newcomer Classroom with Carol Salva
- Creating a Welcoming Environment for PreK-5 ELs by Judie Haynes (TESOL Blog)
- Welcoming Immigrant Students Into the Classroom (Edutopia)
- 7 Tips for Building Positive Relationships with English-Language Learners (Edutopia)
- 10 Tips for Teaching English-Language Learners (Edutopia)
- 18 Ways to Support Your English Learners by Valentina Gonzalez (MiddleWeb)
- How We Can Support Our Newcomer Students by Tan Huynh (Empowering ELLs)
David Branscom replied on Permalink
In order to make sure your classroom environment is appropriate and welcoming for an ELL learner there are a few essentials. I believe that one of the most important things to do is to make the student feel comfortable. In order to do this, bringing their culture into the classroom is a must. It is also important to place them with a respectable and trustworthy partner to help guide when the teacher is not available. Other helpful things might include posting names for objects around the room in both languages. This may help the ELL to feel like they are not an outcast, but apart of the class.
Anonymous replied on Permalink
Do you mind telling us the name of the author?
Miesha Williams replied on Permalink
I have experienced that assigning a peer partner not only benefits the ELL, but the partner as well. My child was a peer partner to an ELL student and she was so intrigued she started learning simple words in his language to help communicate with him.
Anonymous replied on Permalink
This was a very informative video.
Karen replied on Permalink
I enjoyed hearing her ideas.
Resa Avery replied on Permalink
To welcome EL students into my classroom, the first step is to learn their names and the correct punctuation. This give each student a comfortable feeling and establishes a good relationship. After students are acquainted, a peer partner should be assigned... hopefully, someone who speaks the same language or has some connection to the student. For the classroom setting, important parts of the room should be labeled. Every effort should be made to bring any part of the student's culture. My goal is to generate conversation at any level. Instructions should be clear and simple. Pictures are very helpful for understanding directions and vocabulary.
Kathy Canon replied on Permalink
Very helpful reflection of how to help EL's adjust to our schools.
Luz Castro replied on Permalink
It’s fundamental to make the students feel welcome to the school, and especially to the ESOL class by pronouncing their names correctly, try to speak their language, and body up the student with someone who speaks the same language.
A. Works replied on Permalink
Great article. I have incorporated all of those in my classroom. My last year in the classroom, I had a great number of Vietnamese-speaking and Spanish-speaking students. I labeled everything in three languages. It was fun to see how the students taught each other new words in a different language. My Vietnamese students would love to pull out their Vietnamese grammar workbooks during free time. It was great to see students so engaged in language learning. :)
TERRI R. GARDNER replied on Permalink
This article was very informative and it provides support as to why certain things are encourage in my classroom. I do have to say that I am a Pre-K teacher and the visual schedule, and labeling in both languages in the our centers would provide additional support. I look forward to improving my classroom environment.
Catherine Kay replied on Permalink
I enjoyed hearing the tips from Amber Prentice with tips to making EL students feel welcome in our classroom. I will make sure I use their correctly pronounced name and label my classroom before arrival.
Jean Suender replied on Permalink
Imagining myself in another country is a good reminder to the anxiety held by EL students. Making them welcome sets the tone for a successful relationship going forward.
Yolanda Morgan replied on Permalink
What an eye opener. Every teacher of ELL students should view this information and use it.
Nancy Madrid replied on Permalink
I am a adjunct professor at California State University Northridge, and often use your website because it is an amazing resource for the credential students. How do I get a reprint?
jacinth Grant replied on Permalink
This is a great indicator of what an ESOL school should look like. It is important to have labels in different languages to make the environment more inviting to all
Dr. Todd Clark replied on Permalink
I implement music from various cultures including singing in different languages.
Julie Hitt replied on Permalink
It was interesting to hear just how small things can make such a huge difference in making new ELL students feel more comfortable.
Jasmine Rudd replied on Permalink
This was a helpful video. It reassured me that I was already using many of the ELL strategies in my classroom. These are tips that can be used immediately in the classroom.
Shelby Teaford replied on Permalink
Many ELL's may go through various stages as they get used to being in the classroom. Strategies that teachers my use in order to assist their English language learner is provide a visual schedule, one-to-one assistance, assigning a partner, providing a welcoming cultural environment, and providing an interpreter if available.
Anonymous replied on Permalink
Many ELL students will have a better understanding of the English language if both thei native and new language is being used in the classroom. For example, you can use books, vocabulary, and partners who use the same language to bridge the English and native language gap.
Ashley Johnston replied on Permalink
This information is very helpful and will help guide my teaching with my ELL students. I especially like what was said about learning to pronounce their names correctly.
Lisa Brennan replied on Permalink
This information will help me greet and work new students who are ELL. This information will be helpful in making me help new students feel welcomed.
Jennifer Thompson replied on Permalink
I liked the comment that she made regarding getting books in the students native language.
Jeff H replied on Permalink
All these ideas seem simple enough to do in the school and the classroom.
Nozomi Wade replied on Permalink
I agree that creating a welcoming classroom by the school and the homeroom teacher is extremely important. It sets the tone for the entire experience of the ELL student. If the administration and teachers create a positive environment, the other students will follow. In this way, the ELL student will feel more comfortable in his/her new setting.
Contacia Cross replied on Permalink
The stages of concern is really good to know. Teachers often are confused when a student moves from the Euphoria period of excitement about their new surroundings to the culture shock period where they are angry, hostile or have resentment towards the new culture. Another eye opener is learning to pronounce the students name correctly. That is something we could do easily to take a load of stress off the student.
Amy Francoeur replied on Permalink
It's important to make our students feel welcomed and comfortable in their new environment. Ways to do that include using their given names, learning phrases in their native language, labeling classroom objects in both languages, and give students classroom buddies.
Chris Locke replied on Permalink
Pair them up with a partner for activities, display vocabulary with pictures, and continually encourage/assist students to do their best.
Karilin Nikole ... replied on Permalink
There are many useful tips that I can use in my classroom for ELL students.
Chrisanthi Robledo replied on Permalink
In order to make a change feel welcome it has to be sincere! They all have to feel the warmth that you offer. They are all equal even with the language barriers.
Amy Lonergan replied on Permalink
In this section we learned about creating a welcoming classroom environment. It included ideas like having books in their language in the class, using phrases in the language sometimes, saying their name correctly, pair students from the same background together, reviewing the schedule, and inviting and including them in areas in or out of the class. I learned to model for them, to have signs in different languages posted, and to have staff members who speak multiple languages available to help them when possible.
Nancy Crocker replied on Permalink
So many people think that by saying it louder or slower will help the understanding. It is by going at it multiple ways with lots of patience that has worked best for me. From working in Title I for the majority of my career, I have learned a lot about cultures and strategies for the many ESL students that have been in my room. I try to keep in mind what it would look like for my own children if we were to move to Mexico and send them to school in a Spanish speaking world. I would only pray that someone would figure out how to teach them creatively and patiently.
Gail B replied on Permalink
Pronouncing ELL’s names correctly is so critical. Since I have a hard times with names, I have to spend more time on this anyway. I think having an enthusiastic attitude about correct pronunciation is important as I’ve seen people (teachers) get frustrated in front of the students when struggling with their names. I also liked the list of books from the students’ cultures. I’m sure they feel a sense of connection just with the pictures from their own countries. I can’t image what these kids must feel and be going through. I can’t imagine sending my own daughter to a school where English isn’t spoken (and she doesn’t speak that language – AND I don’t have the ability to teach her that school’s language either.
Thalia replied on Permalink
This was helpful.
Rebecca replied on Permalink
I really like the idea of using total physical response activities. I think that it could be used will all ages to help them see and understand the words used in the classroom.
Judy Whitehead replied on Permalink
A welcoming environment is key to creating a relationship with ELL students. You can do this by learning some of their language and offering books in their language. You can prepare the class by telling them that we will have a new student. Assign the student a buddy that speaks their language to help them around the school with procedures of the class. Remember that most ELLS are just ignorant of our language but are very bright.
Family nights and putting signs in different languages help to welcome the families to the school. Always be consistent and fair with all students.
Anonymous replied on Permalink
It is extremely helpful to understand how moving into a new culture can affect students and how we can make the transition less stressful
Toni Berger replied on Permalink
I totally agree that you need visual cues, showing students that you respect them and their culture and representation of all your students in your classroom makes them feel welcome and loved in the classroom.
Angie West replied on Permalink
The STEM Lab is a wonderful place for ELL students to work with others to practice their English in a non-threatening environment. Students are able to practice vocabulary within the context of group work and hands-on activities allow students to explore science concepts further their own knowledge and experiences.
Dana Smith replied on Permalink
I appreciate the advice for creating a welcoming environment for new EL students. I especially like the use of a same language buddy system to help the EL student get adjusted to the routines of the classroom and the school.
Sonya Locke replied on Permalink
I feel it is extremely important to make both the child and his/her family welcomed. They should feel that you care about them and want them to be there. There should also be a feeling of openness that you are there in anyway you can be to support and help them. In the past, parents are more forthcoming if they know you care about their child.
Rachel Kirk replied on Permalink
These students need to feel comfortable and safe when they are at school. Helping each student feel welcomed from the moment they enter your room, until the moment they leave to go home, is crucial for them to adapt to a new environment. I need to bridge the gap of the unknown culture by incorporating their own culture in my room and connecting it to a new culture.
Kristen Richard replied on Permalink
A few things that really stood out to me and will help me in my classroom is to remember to learn the student's name, post visuals and add words in both languages, allow them to have a "buddy" in the classroom to aid them with the parts they do not understand, and speak slowly with clear body language while allowing them extra attention from you.
Chad H replied on Permalink
Mostly common sense stuff it seems, but good reminders. It's easy to forget how it might feel to be in their shoes.
Ivory Bryant replied on Permalink
It is essential to invite and emerge the culture of ELLs into the classroom and their learning environment.
Ann Telford replied on Permalink
I think all this is important. Probably the best thing is to make the student feel welcome.
Hwa ja T Barron replied on Permalink
Coming from my own bilingual background, I think having bilingual signs posted around the classroom would be helpful, especially signs that point to bathroom, trashcans, and supplies. I also think having a peer helper who can assist with the daily routines would also be helpful to our ELL students.
Henry Spivey replied on Permalink
I think it is very important to have the ELL student feel invited. This article has given me some good ideas. Now I will make sure to speak individually with my ELL student at the start of each assignment. Hopefully, this will illustrate my concern and encourage them to seek help when confused.
Dexter Alleyne replied on Permalink
Interesting content because it points out things that we can easily overlook in dealing with EL students.
Missy Swift George replied on Permalink
Learning to allow ELL students to work cooperatively with other students helps me and them.I was so focused on them learning for themselves that I was afraid of cheating, but this helps me see that cooperative learning is a huge benefit to them.
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