The Difficult Road for Long-Term English Learners, by Kate Menken and Tatyana Kleyn, focuses on ELLs who have attended school in the U.S. for seven years or more. According to the authors, these students, who tend to be in grades 6-12, often have a high level of proficiency in social English, but their academic English skills may be limited. This results in difficulties with reading and writing and consequently, many content area subjects.
Menken, K. & Kleyn, T. (2009, April). "The Difficult Road for Long-Term English Learners." Educational Leadership. 66(7).