Each student comes to school, not only with unique academic needs, but also with unique background experiences, culture, language, personality, interests, and attitudes toward learning. Effective teachers recognize that all of these factors affect how students learn in the classroom, and they adjust, or differentiate, their instruction to meet students' needs.
Tomlinson and Imbeau (2010) describe differentiation as creating a balance between academic content and students' individual needs. They suggest that this balance is achieved by modifying four specific elements related to curriculum:
- Content — the information and skills that students need to learn
- Process — how students make sense of the content being taught
- Product — how students demonstrate what they have learned
- Affect — the feelings and attitudes that affect students' learning
These curriculum-related factors are based on student need in three areas:
- Readiness — students' preparation for learning specific information or skills
- Interest — what appeals to students and thus motivates them to learn
- Learning Profile — how students approach the task of learning
The goal of differentiated instruction is to create learning opportunities that make allowances for differences in how individual students learn in order to ensure equal access to important academic content. Content may be modified for students who need additional practice with essential elements before moving on; however, the expectation is that modifications in other areas will ultimately allow all students to master the same key content.
Thus, "differentiated instruction is not the same as individualized instruction. Every student is not learning something different; they are all learning the same thing, but in different ways. And every student does not need to be taught individually; differentiating instruction is a matter of presenting the same task in different ways and at different levels, so that all students can approach it in their own ways" (Trujo, 2004).
It is important to recognize that differentiated instruction is an approach to teaching, not simply a collection of strategies or activities. Effective differentiation requires ongoing evaluation of students' needs and conscious attention to designing instructional activities and assessment to meet those needs. It is true that teachers must have an extensive repertoire of research-based instructional strategies at hand, but they must also be able to "think outside the box" to ensure that each student's needs are met. As Tomlinson and Imbeau (2010) point out, the teacher's role in the differentiated classroom is to continually ask him/herself, "What does this student need at this moment in order to be able to progress with this key content, and what do I need to do to make that happen?" (p. 14).
Differentiating Instruction for ELLs
With the recent emphasis on standards-based instruction, there has been much discussion about what constitutes appropriate content, instruction, and assessment for English language learners. As educators have grappled with this issue, it has become clear that educational parity can only be achieved if ELLs have an opportunity to learn the same rigorous academic content as native English speakers. The best way to achieve that goal is through differentiated instruction that takes into account ELLs' English language proficiency, as well as the many other factors that can impact learning (Fairbairn & Jones-Vo, 2010).
Differentiated instruction, by definition, is instruction that is designed to support individual students' learning in a classroom of students with varied backgrounds and needs. For this reason, the same general principles that apply to differentiated instruction for native English speakers also apply to ELLs.
Teachers are successful at differentiating instruction for ELLs when they:
- Get to know as much as possible about each student — ELLs represent a wide range of academic skills, interests, languages, English language proficiency levels, and cultures. The more a teacher can learn about each student's background, the better prepared s/he is to provide appropriate instruction for that student.
- Have high expectations for all students — Content should not be "watered down" for students who are still developing English language skills. Creative teachers think of ways to help students understand key material and "show what they know" in ways that match their language proficiency levels.
- Have a variety of research-based instructional strategies at hand — Experienced teachers know that "one-size-fits-all" instruction is rarely successful. There are many different learning profiles in any given classroom, and students learn best when instruction matches their needs and learning styles.
- Use ongoing assessment to guide instruction — Ongoing, informal assessment is vitally important to matching instruction to students' changing needs.
- Provide multiple types of assessment — matching assessment to students' learning profiles and language proficiency ensures that every student has an opportunity to demonstrate what he/she knows.
- Differentiate homework — If all students have the same homework assignments, some are doing busy work while others are struggling with work that they cannot possibly complete successfully (Tomlinson, 2005).
- Collaborate — Instruction is most successful when all of the professionals who work with ELLs work together
- Use flexible grouping — Small group instruction is a very effective way of making sure that all students can access important content, and keeping groups flexible allows teachers to match students with different peers for different types of activities.
- Make content comprehensible for all students (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008) — Providing ELLs with alternative ways of accessing key content (e.g., charts, books written in their first language, simplified text written by the teacher, discussion, etc.) allows them to learn the same material as other students as they continue to develop their English language skills.
For information on differentiating instruction in the reading classroom, see Differentiated Reading Instruction, a Reading Rockets webcast featuring Carol Ann Tomlinson, Michael Pressley, and Louise Spear-Swerling.
ELLs call attention to the incredible diversity that is characteristic of American schools in the 21st century. Today, most U.S. classrooms include students with a wide variety of academic needs, cultural backgrounds, learning styles, and languages. Differentiated instruction offers teachers an effective method of addressing the needs of this diverse population in a way that gives all students equal access to learning.
Videos from Larry Ferlazzo and Katie Hull Sypnieski
Differentiation for ELLs 101
These videos are part of a series created for Education Week by Larry Ferlazzo and Katie Hull Sypnieski.
Kate replied on Permalink
This article touches upon what I find to be one of the most important points in educating ELLs, which is the need to insure that the instructional rigor, level of content, and high expectations are not compromised. Differentiating instruction needs to be about â€œhow can I change my approach to teaching this content so my student can learnâ€ rather than â€œhow can I change the content so my student can learn.â€ Although the second option is easier it has led to the overwhelming gaps in education that we now see.
Santina (orange... replied on Permalink
Students cannot learn the same way since so many students come from various cultural backgrounds. Many students are English Language Learners and need extra support. This article has listed many important factors that are important in helping ELL students succeed and reach their goals. If teachers take the time to get to know their students, they would be able to motivate these students and know their strengths and weaknesses. Understanding their strengths and weakness can help teachers establish adequate goals for ELL students.
qingfen zhao replied on Permalink
To manage a class in different ways is certain good for students; and to let different students do different homework is a good way to involve all the students in learning;
Nuha Salih replied on Permalink
Different strategies will enhance students and improve their product.
Reinaldo Lopez replied on Permalink
Teaching Chemistry for ELL students also require that they learn Nomenclature, Stochiometry, Atoms and Molecular Structures, etc., that is equivalent to learn a third new language.
John replied on Permalink
Great work keep it up.
Tiff replied on Permalink
Great article.....provides a breath of fresh air, focuses us on what really matters, the individual child's needs. Also gives nice itemized reminder list for us vet teachers who are bogged down and have become jaded due to nclb & the reality of over testing & teaching to the test. Moral of the story:cultural differences/our ELLs really do enrich our schools & touch our lives in a most positive way.
Jean-Paul replied on Permalink
Having high expectations for the ELL students is an easy one. They always come to school prepared, in proper uniform, homework completed, and questions about any material/content covered the day before. The effort that they bring is immeasurable. I can't grade a student on what they don't bring to class, but I do grade on what they do with it - Love the ELL student's effort.
Marisa replied on Permalink
Differentiation is a necessity for all students, but especially ELL due to varying language proficiency levels. I especially liked the point to differentiate homework! This checklist is a helpful reminder of ways in which teachers can tailor instruction and assessment to meet the individual needs of the student in order to demonstrate learning.
Brooke replied on Permalink
Making content comprehensible is an absolute most, it is our whole objective of teaching! Students need to be engaged and digest the information. Students use a wide range of strategies and variables to grasp the content such as reminder cards, charts, drawings, graphic organizers and so on. We need to do whatever it takes to get the material to the child. I know with my own students, sometimes I can try the most bizarre methods of either getting the student to comprehend or correct behavior. My motto is... "you never know until you try". What may not work for one... may work for another!
Dominique replied on Permalink
Often times regular classroom teachers have a difficult time reaching the needs of their ELL students. This article give some really great suggestions of ways to help ELL students find success. One of the most important things to remember is to set high standards for ELL's. Teachers must remember that they are capable, they might just need a little extra guidance.
Euna replied on Permalink
According to this article, "differentiated instruction is designed to support individual students' learning in a classroom of students with varied backgrounds and needs." There is no doubt that great diversity in academic proficiency, ethnic background, culture, language and learning style is found in today's 21st century classroom. Therefore, as an accountable educator, differentiating one's teaching is no longer just an option, but rather an essentiality in order to equally move all students from where they are now to the next step. Furthermore, one of the key components to doing so is to know your children personally. The more you know about them, the more you can relate to their needs and better guide them down the path to true learning and understanding.
Dr Puven replied on Permalink
I have been teaching ESL/EAP for 30 years and I find differentiated instruction works well with ELLs as the approach itself is holistic. All aspects of the learners are considered in any teaching instruction and tasks designed accordingly. Though it is time consuming, it is a worthwhile effort as students do progress and eventually reach the target with the necessary guidance given. Collaboration among teachers in developing teaching materials and onging informal assessments to cater to diverse students is vital. see www.drpuven.com
B. Hirschlein replied on Permalink
D.I. Is absolutely a tool that ESL/ELL/BLE etc. teachers need to learn how to use and apply to their daily lessons. Every student different and learns in different ways, the fact that Ell students are learning another language on top of what they are already required to learn in a school curriculum, makes this all the more necessary.
D. Curran replied on Permalink
Differentiated instruction is definitely a necessity in education in general, and even more so in the ESL/ELL community. Students come from all different backgrounds, so it would be safe to assume that the students come in with different learning styles as well. Teachers who take the time to get to know their students on an individual basis (how they learn best, what motivates them, etc.) will find the most success in their classrooms.
C. Tomlinson replied on Permalink
Differentiating Instruction needs to happen for every student. Then when an ELL student comes into your classroom there would be no need to stress, because you are already practicing differentiating instruction. Everyone learns differently and how you get to the end point does not matter as long as you get there with the correct knowledge.
Meg Markkanen replied on Permalink
Getting to know your students is like fertilizing the soil for a healthy garden. The ELL student thinks: â€œThis teacher cares about me and my progress.â€ Only through collaborating with other teachers can the ELL instructor have an overview of the studentâ€™s course content in other subjects. Simplifying the language content of other subjects creates a level of comfort the student needs to not feel defeated in the English language acquisition process. Lessons can be designed in stations to vary the instruction and support individual needs. It is important to constantly check for understanding and an exit pass (kinesthetic) not only attracts student attention but also provides the teacher a snapshot of student understanding of the lesson.
M. Delcher replied on Permalink
Differentiated instruction is a valuable tool for teachers. For ELL students it is a means to achieve success in learning through modifications that enhance rather than water down instruction. A teacher must assess studentâ€™s progress often so that any adjustments to instruction may be met. To differentiate teachers must be flexible. Small group instruction assists in developing studentsâ€™ performance in ways that are most successful. Working in homogenous small groups allows students to work with others at their level and abilities. This provides the students with growth potential and confidence. It further provides a more accurate method for teachers to measure progress of students and reaching content goals.
Julie Zlotnick replied on Permalink
This is a great review on what differentiated instruction should be! Knowing your students and their families is one of the most important ways to learn about what your student needs from you. I like that the article says "differentiating instruction is a matter of presenting the same task in different ways and at different levels, so that all students can approach it in their own ways." It is important to remember that "dumbing down the curriculum" or placing ELLs in grade levels below their own age group is detrimental to students and bad teaching practice. In practice, differentiation can be difficult but their are many creative ways mentioned above to help all students grasp key content at their own learning level.
Lilliana Matos replied on Permalink
Differentiated instruction is an essential strategy to have as a teacher. It allows us as educators to really meet the needs of the children. In order for us to do so we must use our assessments to guide our instruction. We have to adapt our lessons in a way to make it more understandable to the students. Getting to know your students and understanding their strengths and weaknesses is key to knowing how to reach them.
B. Advani replied on Permalink
Many people confuse the term differentiated instruction with individualized instruction. Differentiated instruction gives ALL students access to the same material, but using different techniques and means of assessment. Not all students can demonstrate mastery of the skills and concepts in the traditional paper-pencil assessments, and it is important for teachers to understand that.
christine stabile replied on Permalink
Differentiation is a must in today's classrooms. i have had several classes and it really is essential to attain the best results for all students success'.
Jenn B replied on Permalink
Differentiated instruction is very helpful in the classroom. The preparation for it is time consuming, but the benefits of it is priceless. I would like to use the idea of creating differentiated homework for the various academic levels I have in my classroom.
Julio replied on Permalink
I love how this article emphasizes the importance of differentiated instruction. ELLs come from many different cultures that possess their own ways of teaching and learning. We can't focus on just teaching a certain way, we have to research and expand our pedagogical strategies to reach each learner in the classroom. Educators should always keep in mind how much of the content is being understood by the ELLs and how to present the material at grade level. Nothing is more important to the families of the ELLs than having their children receive quality education that is rigorous and at grade level.
Lynn Sooy replied on Permalink
I liked this article. I think that it is so important for the ELL to be motivated, and that requires a teacher who will take the time to appreciate each learner and find out what which ways are effective to motivate each one. They may not fully understand what is being said, but they will be able to motivated by the attitude of the teacher. Getting to know each student is time consuming but well worth the effort.
Karen replied on Permalink
The website contains links to information on ELL Basics. It includes resources by grade. These resources include books, authors, and videos. It also had a link to ELL in the news, school support, teaching ELLs, and information for families. A visitor to the website can even choose to see the readings in Spanish or English. I found the article “Differentiated Instruction for English Language Learners” very interesting and helpful with the different strategies addressed. I plan to work on providing multiple types of assessment and differentiated homework in my classroom. I have also seen a common theme of making sure to have high expectations for all students. As teachers we need to make sure we are asking easy questions, but figuring out a new way to ask the question. As a teacher of ELLs I could see the many benefits of this website. I’m looking forward to having more time to watch more of the videos posted! There are also so many links to different articles to help with different issues an ELL teacher faces.
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