How to Create a Welcoming Classroom Environment

Chances are that your English language learners (ELLs) come from a culture with traditions and family values that differ from mainstream American culture. These young children not only have the challenge of learning a new language, but also of adjusting to an unfamiliar cultural setting and school system. Imagine what it would be like to step into a foreign classroom where you didn't understand the language, rules, routines, or expected behavior.

On a daily basis, ELLs are adjusting to new ways of saying and doing things. As their teacher, you are an important bridge to this unknown culture and school system. There are a number of things you can do to help make ELLs' transitions as smooth as possible.

Stages of Cultural Accommodation

In the same way that ELLs go through stages of English language learning, they may also pass through stages of cultural accommodation. These stages, however, may be less defined and more difficult to notice. Being aware of these stages may help you to better understand "unusual" actions and reactions that may just be part of adjusting to a new culture.

  • Euphoria: ELLs may experience an initial period of excitement about their new surroundings.
  • Culture shock: ELLs may then experience anger, hostility, frustration, homesickness, or resentment towards the new culture.
  • Acceptance: ELLs may gradually accept their different surroundings.
  • Assimilation/adaptation: ELLs may embrace and adapt to their surroundings and their "new" culture.

Classroom Strategies: Helping Your ELLs Adjust to New Surroundings

Although there are no specific teaching techniques to make ELLs feel that they belong in a new culture, there are ways for you to make them feel welcome in your classroom:

Learn their names

Take the time to learn how to pronounce your ELLs' names correctly. Ask them to say their name. Listen carefully and repeat it until you know it. If a student's name is Pedro, make sure you do not call him /peedro/ or Peter. Also, model the correct pronunciation of ELLs' names to the class so that all students can say the correct pronunciation.

Offer one-on-one assistance when possible

Some ELLs may not answer voluntarily in class or ask for your help even if they need it. ELLs may smile and nod, but this does not necessarily mean that they understand. Go over to their desk to offer individual coaching in a friendly way. For convenience, it may be helpful to seat ELLs near your desk.

Assign a peer partner

Identify a classmate who really wants to help your ELL as a peer. This student can make sure that the ELL understands what he or she is supposed to do. It will be even more helpful if the peer partner knows the ELL's first language.

Post a visual daily schedule

Even if ELLs do not yet understand all of the words that you speak, it is possible for them to understand the structure of each day. Whether through chalkboard art or images on Velcro, you can post the daily schedule each morning. By writing down times and having pictures next to words like lunch, wash hands, math, and field trip, ELLs can have a general sense of the upcoming day.

Use an interpreter

On-site interpreters can be very helpful in smoothing out misunderstandings that arise due to communication problems and cultural differences. If an on-site interpreter (a paid or volunteer school staff position) is not available, try to find an adult - perhaps another parent who is familiar with the school or "knows the system" – who is willing to serve this purpose. In difficult situations, it would not be appropriate for another child to translate.

ELLs can make unintentional "mistakes" as they are trying hard to adjust to a new cultural setting. They are constantly transferring what they know as acceptable behaviors from their own culture to the U.S. classroom and school. Be patient as ELLs learn English and adjust.

Invite their culture into the classroom

Encourage ELLs to share their language and culture with you and your class. Show-and-tell is a good opportunity for ELLs to bring in something representative of their culture, if they wish. They could also tell a popular story or folktale using words, pictures, gestures, and movements. ELLs could also try to teach the class some words from their native language.

Use materials related to your ELLs' cultures

Children respond when they see books, topics, characters, and images that are familiar. Try to achieve a good balance of books and materials that include different cultures. Visit our recommended bilingual books section.

Label classroom objects in both languages

Labeling classroom objects will allow ELLs to better understand their immediate surroundings. These labels will also assist you when explaining or giving directions. Start with everyday items, such as "door/puerta," "book/libro," and "chair/silla."

Include ELLs in a non-threatening manner

Some ELLs may be apprehensive about speaking out in a group. They might be afraid to make mistakes in front of their peers. Their silence could also be a sign of respect for you as an authority – and not a sign of their inability or refusal to participate. Find ways to involve ELLs in a non-threatening manner, such as through Total Physical Response activities and cooperative learning projects.

Involve ELLs in cooperative learning

Some ELLs are used to working cooperatively on assigned tasks. What may look like cheating to you is actually a culturally acquired learning style — an attempt to mimic, see, or model what has to be done. Use this cultural trait as a plus in your classroom. Assign buddies or peer tutors so that ELLs are able to participate in all class activities. Also, check out these cooperative learning strategies you can use with ELLs.

Help your ELLs follow established rules

All students need to understand and follow your classroom rules from the very beginning, and ELLs are no exception. Teach them your classroom management rules as soon as possible to avoid misunderstandings, discipline problems, and feelings of low self-esteem. Here are a few strategies that you can use in class:

  • Use visuals like pictures, symbols, and reward systems to communicate your expectations in a positive and direct manner.
  • Physically model language to ELLs in classroom routines and instructional activities. ELLs will need to see you or their peers model behavior when you want them to sit down, walk to the bulletin board, work with a partner, copy a word, etc.
  • Be consistent and fair with all students. Once ELLs clearly understand what is expected, hold them equally accountable for their behavior.

Video: Creating Welcoming Classroom Environments

 

To see the complete interviews of the featured experts, see the following.

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References

Adapted from: Eastern Stream Center on Resources and Training (ESCORT). (2003). Help! They don't speak English. Starter kit. Oneonta, NY: State University College.

And from: Tharp, R., Estrada, P., Stoll Dalton, S., & Yamauchi, L. (2000). Teaching transformed. Achieving excellence, fairness, inclusion, and harmony. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

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Comments

Very concise explanation of this topic. Many concrete ideas for ELL support.

It is very important to bring the cultures of ALL students into the classroom. When students share their language and cultures with the class, it helps the ELL's and the other students become partners in the classroom culture. I have always made a point of being able to pronounce all students' names. Students feel much more welcome if the teacher and other students know their names.

Can relate! Very informative and accurate.

This was such an informative article and video. Making sure you put yourself in that child's position helps you see how they acknowledge things in the classroom.

very informative and great information

Very useful information. Will do all.

I include artworks from other cultures

It is important to encourage ELLs to share their language and culture with you and your class.

I like how they assign a peer partner. This is very helpful.

This is a review of the class I just took.

I like the idea of calling a student by their actual name instead of a nickname. I think it shows you actually care about the student and their culture rather than just "Americanizing" everything they do.

Having bilingual books in the classroom helps students to feel like their needs are important to you.

The reading was very informative. One takeaway is that the teacher should model the language to the ELL student, this will be very helpful to the ELL student. One more point is to remember to help the ELL students follow rules with visuals like pictures, symbols, and a reward system.

I agree on learning how to say/pronounce the student's name. It makes them feel important.

Its important to encourage ELLs to share their culture with their peers in order to build a classroom environment where all students feel valued.

I strongly agree that it is important to make ELL students feel welcome and to feel "safe" in class discussions. I loved all the strategies provided.

The tips for a welcoming environment was very helpful.

I like the idea of learning a couple of phrases, learning greetings and make sure I know how to pronounce all of their names. Also the importance of getting them a buddy to learn from.

THIS IS GREAT INFORMATION!

I firmly believe that our classroom environment needs to reflect the children we serve. It needs to be welcoming and our lessons also need to reflect their culture in a positive way.

I have been an administrator at a school where we would have many students with different languages spoken at home. I found all of the suggestions helpful and I'm happy that these ideas are being given to educators of ELL students.!!

I believe that the One on One is essential and needed.

Getting a peer partner for the ELL students and letting them working with a small group are very conducive in class. I have used an ELL paraprofessional in my class who can speak both language to help the ELL students. In some cases, these ELL paraprofessionals do provide very good emotional, social and academic support.

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